Definitions – non-violence in Islam as absolute. Religion and the history of violence. Effects of conflict on humanity, on Muslims. The history of violence in Abrahamic Monotheism. The history of nonviolence in Abrahamic Montheism & religious traditions – Abel & Cain, Prophet Jesus son of Mary, Prophet Muhammad, Al-Husayn bin Ali, Abu Hanifah, Shafi’i. Other examples – Badshah Khan, Mahatma Ghandhi, Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela. The Madinan School of Nonviolence – pragmatic and principled dimensions.