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Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663

Notice: amp_is_available was called incorrectly. `amp_is_available()` (or `amp_is_request()`, formerly `is_amp_endpoint()`) was called too early and so it will not work properly. WordPress is currently doing the `load_script_textdomain_relative_path` hook. Calling this function before the `wp` action means it will not have access to `WP_Query` and the queried object to determine if it is an AMP response, thus neither the `amp_skip_post()` filter nor the AMP enabled toggle will be considered. It appears the plugin with slug `jetpack` is responsible; please contact the author. Please see Debugging in WordPress for more information. (This message was added in version 2.0.0.) in /home/cnvpssxj/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5663
Our Field of Interests – Madina Institute Center for Non-violence and Peace Studies

Our Field of Interests

  • Non-violence studies using Non-Violence: A Fundamental Principle as an ideological and practical framework.
  • Philosophy and theory of non-violence and its application in different social, cultural, and geopolitical contexts.
  • Case studies of non-violent attempts at conflict resolution and their relative consequences on communities in the long-term.
  • Effects of terrorism and violent extremism on victims and groups associated with perpetrators (such as Muslims suffering from Post-Terrorism Stress Disorder).
  • Extremism and identitarian supremacy within different nations, cultures, and religions, and the push-and-pull factors of ideological and violent extremism.
  • Origins of different forms of violent extremism, racial, nationalistic, and religious.
  • War, militarism, and jingoism: their destruction of life, property, and liberty and their erosion of civil society.
  • Cultivation of democratic and pluralistic values in democratically deficient areas.
  • Deconstruction of culturally essentialist explanations of underdevelopment and authoritarianism in the developing world and the study of higher-quality explanations.